Site last up-dated 18/12/2018

Site Launched 6/2/2018


Welcome to the


This website has been compiled in an attempt to provide a readily available easy way to identify R8 Sceatta. A single silver penny coin is called a Sceat (pronounced sheet) the plural of Sceat is Sceatta (pronounced shatter).


Sceatta were minted in Anglo-Saxon times and by many are divided into phases, the Primary Phase – 680AD to 710AD and the Secondary Phase – 710AD to 760AD. I have only mentioned two of the phases as the “R” series were struck during those periods. The R8 was minted during the middle of the secondary phase in the reign of King Ælfwald of East Anglia 713 to 749 AD. Blackburn(1) did much research into the chronology of Sceatta.


The easiest way to classify R8 and R8R Sceatta is by identifing the Runes on the obverse of the coins. These can be difficult to read and are sometimes corrupt or malformed.

Have a look at the"R8 and R8R Type Identification Image" page.



The Runes on R8 Sceatta are in front of the runic head on the obverse of the coin. See example below. This example shows the Runes E R that are retrograde, read in an anti-clockwise direction. Most examples are struck with the Runes reading in a clockwise direction. Some Runes are joined to the adjacent one, these are called Bind. Some combinations have an unidentified symbol or Rune either behind or in front of the Runes.

The head on R8 sceatta faces towards the right. The R8R coins have the head facing to the left.


When you have decided which runic combination there is on the obverse, look on the appropriate page where more detail is given. The navigation buttons are on the left hand side of every page.


The typical LOLII configuration of symbols within the beaded standard on the Reverse of the coin is another defining factor of the R8. Very occasionally the symbols differ. See image at top of page. Coins are usually pictured with the two “L’s” at the top of the image although die axis often varies.




Only a small number of coins are recorded on the EMC as R8Rs. The British Museum records only five examples, the Ashmolean five, Dr Tony Abramson shows three images in his collection, I have three coins. Not all images allow conclusive identification, some have runes extending over the flan edge while others are damaged. Nine runic combinations have been identified, EPA in both clockwise and anticlockwise format and EP, EA +EA & +EA bind, ER ER+ square nose and ER+ pointed nose. The R8R type numbering system begins from 200 onwards to avoid confusion with other numbering systems.


Comprehensive notes of my study can be seen on the Introduction to Sceatta Identification page.



EPA runes as Type 10-19

EP as Type 20-29

EA as Type 30-39

EA bind as Type 40-9

Unidentified symbol or rune before the EA Type 50-9

ER is listed as Type 60-9

The ER+ (runes read anti-clockwise) forms Type 70-9, this is given a different type number from the other ER coins as it also has a cross pommée behind the head in place of a horizontal chevron and unusual symbols within the standard on the reverse.

The HHL coins are given the designation of Type 80-9.



Runes EPA reading anti-clockwise are given the classification Type 200-209

Runes EPA reading clockwise are given the classification Type 210-219

EP as Type 220-229

EA as Type 230-235

+EA Bind as Type 237

ER as Type 240
ER+ Square Nose as Type 245

ER+ Square Nose as Type 246

ER+ Pointed Nose as Type 248.


 (1) Blackburn M 1984 “A chronology for the sceattas” in “Sceattas in England and on the Continent” ed Hill & Metcalf (BAR Brit128;Oxford) pp165-74.

Unknown types will continue to be found. I will add these to the website when known about, they will be allocated the unused numbers in various types. If you know of any additional types please let me know via the Guestbook Page. If you find any mistakes please let me know!

I am indebted to Dr Michael Metcalf for helping me promptly whenever I asked for guidance and to Dr Tony Abramson for his help and the use of his images.

If you collect series "R" sceatta here are links to coin dealers who may have some to sell you!