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Site last up-dated 28th January 2023

Site Launched 6/2/2018


Welcome to the r8sceattatypes.website


R8 Sceatta Types Recognition.


This website now also additionally contains the results of recognition and classification of the R2, R3, R4, R5 and R9 Sceatta. There is very limited information about the R7 also. Detailed information about the R1 is available in Metcalf's paper "Runic Sceattas Reading EPA". Gannon's Sylloge 63 of coins in the British Museum gives detailed information about the R10 and R11 types.



 See Left side green page buttons


This website was initially compiled in an attempt to provide a readily available easy way to identify R8 and R8R Sceatta. I have now expanded this to include other R series types. A single silver penny coin is called a Sceat (pronounced sheet) the plural of Sceat is Sceatta (pronounced shatter).


Sceatta were minted in Anglo-Saxon times and by many are divided into phases, the Primary Phase approximately 680 AD to 710 AD and the Secondary Phase approximately 710 AD to 760 AD. I have only mentioned two of the phases as the “R” series were struck during those periods. The R2 was minted at the very end of the Primary Phase or the very start of the Secondary Phase. R3 were minted at the begining of the Secondary phase, The R8's were minted during the middle of the secondary phase in the reign of King Ælfwald of East Anglia 713 AD to 749 AD. Blackburn (1) did much research into the chronology of Sceatta.


The easiest way to classify R8 and R8R Sceatta is by identifing the Runes on the obverse of the coins. These can be difficult to read and are sometimes corrupt or malformed.

Have a look at the"R8 and R8R Type Identification Image" page.


This statement also applies to the R2 Sceatta on the appropriate pages on this site.

R2 Type Classification


This statement also applies to the R3 Sceatta on the appropriate pages on this site.

R3 Type Classification


This statement also applies to the R4 Sceatta on the appropriate pages on this site.

R4 Type Classification


This statement also applies to the R5 Sceatta on the appropriate pages on this site.

R5 Type Classification


This statement also applies to the R9 Sceatta on the appropriate pages on this site.

R9 Type Classification

The English epigraphical runes for the roman equivalents of "o", "a" and "ae" appear the be very similar in shape.


The Runes on R8 Sceatta are in front of the runic head on the obverse of the coin. See example below. This example shows the Runes E R that are retrograde, read in an anti-clockwise direction. Most examples are struck with the Runes reading in a clockwise direction. Some Runes are joined to the adjacent one, these are called Bind. Some combinations have an unidentified symbol or Rune either behind or in front of the Runes.

The head on R8 sceatta faces towards the right. The R8R coins have the head facing to the left.


When you have decided which runic combination there is on the obverse, look on the appropriate page where more detail is given. The navigation buttons are on the left hand side of every page.


The typical LOLII configuration of symbols within the beaded standard on the Reverse of the coin is another defining factor of the R8. Very occasionally the symbols differ. See image at top of page. Coins are usually pictured with the two “L’s” at the top of the image although die axis often varies.




Only a small number of coins are recorded on the EMC as R8Rs. The British Museum records only five examples, the Ashmolean five, Dr Tony Abramson shows three images in his collection, I have three coins. Not all images allow conclusive identification, some have runes extending over the flan edge while others are damaged. Nine runic combinations have been identified, EPA in both clockwise and anticlockwise format and EP, EA +EA & +EA bind, ER ER+ square nose and ER+ pointed nose. The R8R type numbering system begins from 200 onwards to avoid confusion with other numbering systems.


Comprehensive notes of my study can be seen on the Introduction to Sceatta Identification page.



EPA runes as Type 10-19

EP as Type 20-29

EA as Type 30-39

EA bind as Type 40-9

Unidentified symbol or rune before the EA Type 50-9

ER is listed as Type 60-9

The ER+ (runes read anti-clockwise) forms Type 70-9, this is given a different type number from the other ER coins as it also has a cross pommée behind the head in place of a horizontal chevron and unusual symbols within the standard on the reverse.

The HHL coins are given the designation of Type 80-9.



Runes EPA reading anti-clockwise are given the classification Type 200-209

Runes EPA reading clockwise are given the classification Type 210-219

EP as Type 220-229

EA as Type 230-235

+EA Bind as Type 237

ER as Type 240

ER with Different Symbols within Standard Type 242

ER+ Square Nose as Type 245

ER+ Square Nose as Type 246

ER+ Pointed Nose as Type 248.


 (1) Blackburn M 1984 “A chronology for the sceattas” in “Sceattas in England and on the Continent” ed Hill & Metcalf (BAR Brit128;Oxford) pp165-74.

Unknown types will continue to be found. I will add these to the website when known about, they will be allocated the unused numbers in various types. If you know of any additional types please let me know via the Guestbook Page. If you find any mistakes please let me know!


I am indebted to Dr Michael Metcalf for helping me promptly whenever I asked for guidance and to Dr Tony Abramson for his help and the use of his images.


Prices of R Series Sceatta vary quite widely. These prices are from dealers both on EBay and via the dealers own websites. When you compare prices do take into account the postage costs as well. Coins bought from abroad sometimes incur other charges, do check. Below are two charts showing prices as I have found them. The coins in the charts are of varying quality. The blue coloured chart shows R8 and R8R coins, the green coloured chart shows all R Series coins